Past | 展覽回顧
 
Pioneer of Chinese Contemporary Abtract Painting -
FONG Chung-Ray

中國當代抽象畫先驅—馮鍾睿個展

 
Date | 展期 2015. 12. 1 - 31
 
works | 作品欣賞 
 
情感•語言•形式 — 馮鍾睿繪畫藝術簡析
 


  「割斷實際反應與日常生活感覺的聯繫,是一切藝術賴以生存的手段,因此,藝術表現解放一種純凈的、好像脫離肉體的精神作用;但是只要藝術家依賴於所表現對象的具形聯想,他們的作品就不能完全自在純凈,因為浪漫主義的聯想至少意味著一種幻想的實際活動。這種藝術聯想的弊端,就在於其效果完全依賴於我們已有的東西;它不能為我們的感受增加全新的因素,於是,當第一陣驚嘆或者欣喜的震 盪 消失殆盡,作品引起的是一種有減無增的反映」 —— 羅傑•弗瑞( ROGER FRY )

  當我們把目光聚焦於臺灣近五十年現代美術運動的發生、發展軌跡時,我們便不能忽略一個畫家的名子—他叫馮鍾睿。中學便離家從戎、曾經穿過海軍制服的馮鍾睿,用拿槍摸炮的手抓起畫筆,由『四海畫會』、『五月畫會』開始,實實在在地參與現代美術運動,並在那青春浪漫的年月裡,用熱情和信仰、苦修書寫了自己藝術樸實、動人的一頁。
  馮鍾睿,帶著「少小離家」的點點鄉愁,在藝術的旅程上,由大陸至臺灣,繼而美國,由油彩到水墨、拓印、拼貼—思考、積累、摸索、創造,一回首,留下了半個世紀的深深刻度。那些忘不了的困惑、迷茫、苦思、冥想、喜悅、淚水、歡笑,那些情感顛簸起伏的漣漪,便隱隱地揉在馮鍾睿繪畫語言的符號中,苦難是深深埋著的,歡樂也一樣,納言的馮鍾睿不滿足於繪畫形式中常見的、那些文學通解的便利,他選擇了抽象的繪畫構成,並且不斷地進行打磨,精心製作,在畫面的形式肌理中,娓娓闡述一個畫家的特殊鄉愁—一個物理世界的遙遠距離和心靈世界的無歸屬。早先的馮鍾睿作品中,我們不難找到那源於宋代山水畫李唐、 范寬式的冷寂與惆悵,可以看到八大山人式的"墨點無多淚點多、山河仍是舊山河"的悲情美學的淡淡痕跡,即便是移民美國後的長期繪畫生活中,這種深刻的因素依然割捨不下,對於一個詩人或是畫家,一種諾瓦利斯式的鄉愁,恰恰是其藝術不斷追求、不斷創造的和不斷破壞(對藝術成規和對自己藝術面貌的否定)的原動力,它引導著藝術家不斷地向思想和情感的縱深地帶前行。
  由此,油畫的色彩、國畫的水墨、壓克力甚至是紙板、塑膠布,材料不過是畫家所籍藉以傳達或是呈現的一個「形」,一個「器」,一個視覺媒介,所有傳統的審美的標準在這個前提下被重新肢解重新定位。我常常見在馮氏作品中見到書法的痕跡,或是背景或就是畫面構成的一個重要部分,然而它們已然不是傳統書法審美中那些「一波三折」、「妄生圭角」、「 如錐劃砂」、「中鋒用筆」諸如此類的標準之下的結果,它們的痕跡本身就是有著審美價值的獨立符號—換句話說,文人士大夫式的、對傳統文化藝術審美的一套完善的過程和章法已然不再是五月畫會畫家和馮鍾睿繪畫所要的,在既成的習慣中找到一個新的、不同以往的方式方法不就是一個藝術家創造力最好的佐證?
  風花雪月、鳥語花香的古典士大夫式的借景生情被現代生活激越的速度和節奏取代。墨分五色、應物相形被抽象表現主義的直接、強烈的痕跡、線條、色塊取代。對客觀世界的溫情的描述被對主觀世界的冷澀論證取代。
  馮鍾睿新近的作品,正逐步從一種已經成形的語言符號中脫出,我不知道是否和他從一九八零年代後期學佛理經的過程有直接的根源,但「金剛經」中的、對世界認知的不同角度是馮鍾睿繪畫中一個不可多得的催化劑。就新的一批作品的繪畫形式看來,馮鍾睿似乎在尋找,尋找一種畫家自我營建的精神歸屬,他試圖捨棄故事,捨棄"讓人懂得"—廉價的世俗溫情是工藝裝璜的佐料,它可以造就市民審美的嘉年華會而決不能成就偉大的藝術家和藝術品,審美上所有的裝飾點綴在純繪畫面前也許就是一劑有毒的膏藥—馮鍾睿明白並且努力使個人作品盡量靠近繪畫語言純粹的活水源頭,他的作品《繪畫07—25》、《繪畫07—29》似乎已經展示了一種掙脫的渴望。精神從唯物主義的盡頭開始升起,對純繪畫的清晰陳述必然會導致對傳統模式的反省,表現繪畫的塵緣現實主義的幻覺被思索的形而上因素摧毀,畫家不再滿足於對現實生活的苦思冥想。
  「我們是誰,我們從哪堥荂B我們到哪堨h?」,「何處是歸程?長亭更短亭!」一個永遠沒有謎底的謎面,一個永遠沒有彼岸的渡口,一個精神上的永遠放逐,註定藝術家生來就是個精神流浪者,畢卡索是,莫迪利阿尼是,高更是,梵谷是,八大山人是,人生顛沛流離的生活所造就藝術,成全藝術家。我曾經看過一些五月畫會畫家們早期的作品,不可否認,文學性質的潛在詮釋按照宋元山水的曲調唱過幾聲悲情歌謠,抑或是馮鍾睿早期的作品,這種潛在的因素不難找到,然而就像本篇開頭所引的著名藝術評論家羅傑所說的「只有藝術家依賴所表現對象具體聯想,他們的作品就不能完全自在純凈」 一樣,馮鍾睿近年的作品,已經超脫了羅氏所謂的「具體聯想」 ,盡管我常常看到馮鍾睿作品中的一些具體的形(書法、門神),而其中的審美實質和形的關係不大,花不是花,霧不是霧,或者可以是花也可以是霧—就像希拉•瑞貝(HILLA REBA)的花和月亮「雖然我們都喜歡陽光,但是無論這種愉悅之情還是明媚陽光都沒有什麼實質意義,除非我們的理智創造出一種意義。我們既不能批評花朵,也不能嫌棄月亮。它們永遠不會改變自己。花籽無視批評,照樣長出一模一樣的花卉。它遵循的是創造的直覺規律,人們可以喜歡它或是不喜歡它,但它的存在無法更改,它的完善無瑕優美動人」。
  五十年繪畫的歷程馮鍾睿走得辛苦而幸福,一個畫家能夠用自己的思想和情感營造自己的語言模式宣達自己的藝術主張和美學追求,其中個人的經久持琲熙迣y熱情是一個重要因素,而清晰冷靜的繪畫意識更是保持這種熱情的基石。

 
 
 
 
  Fong Chung-Ray: A Master within the Continuum of Contemporary Chinese Art
 
  Recently some colleagues from the Chinese Culture Center and I visited Fong Chung-ray in Walnut Creek, California. While the sweltering outdoor temperature read 101 degrees Fahrenheit, Fong entertained us in the coolness of his studio with stories of his life as an artist and the trajectory his art took that made him one of the most prominent figures of modern Chinese art. In spite of the hot weather that day, Fong at 79 years of age, exulted harmony and serenity as he spoke -- temperament that can found reflected in many of his paintings. His studio housed many paintings that were created within the last few years. This vast number of new artwork is a testimony of Fong's ceaseless need to create art and of his constant search for artistic expressions that bring satisfaction to his creativity. His long career began in Taiwan and continued when he immigrated with his family to San Francisco in 1975.
  Born in 1934 in Henan, China, Fong Chung-Ray spent his childhood years in periods of turmoil marked first by the Japanese invasion of China and later by the war between the Nationalists and the Communists. In 1949, Fong joined the Nationalist Army as a cadet and left China for Taiwan with a group of young friends. In 1952, he enrolled in the Art Department of the Political Staff College in Taipei (renamed Political Warfare College in 1970) and began studying art and painting from nature. However, Fong soon found that painting realistic depictions from nature was not satisfying; he felt the need to create something from within rather than from without. This belief further developed after he became acquainted with Western abstract art from books and magazines he encountered at the library, and from reproductions he saw at the U.S. Information Services Center in Taipei.
  Fong Chung-Ray's importance in the history of Chinese modernism lies in his relentless pursuit of a new visual language that combines Chinese and Western sensibilities in abstract forms. Unlike many other Chinese artists in the 1950s and 1960s who continued the traditional ink-and-brush renditions of landscapes and birds-and-flowers imbued with personal variations, Fong together with members of the "Four Seas Art Association" and later the "Fifth Moon Painting Society," sought to introduce a new visual vocabulary that focused on revelation rather than representation. In Fong's paintings, thoughts and feelings are abstracted and expressed through layers of paints, shapes and lines. Not content with what he saw at the time in Taiwan, Fong abandoned realistic depictions of the material world and embraced abstract art to convey his inner world.
  The paintings in this exhibition are recent works created by the artist in the last two to three years. We can safely say that this body of work embodies Fong's mature style. Chinese ink, acrylic, and collage are now combined to produce a rich textured effect -- the materials themselves thus create perspective and depth. Gestural Chinese calligraphic strokes interlace with non-representational elements to create vibrant images that invite the viewer to linger his gaze upon the surface of the painting and to explore what lies beneath.
  Never afraid of borrowing from tradition but freely keeping the spirit of abstraction, Fong frequently uses Chinese calligraphy in his paintings. It has been pointed out repeatedly by scholars and artists that Chinese calligraphy in itself is a high form of abstract art. Who can refute this statement when looking at the "crazy" draft script (kuang caoshu) of countless Chinese calligraphers throughout the long history of Chinese art? Fong's calligraphy can be at times fluid and elegant when drawn with a brush, and at times blunt and pictographical when etched with a sharp tool. The calligraphy can be poems from ancient times or excerpts from Buddhist sutras. Combined with color gradations and textured layers, Fong successfully blends a much beloved traditional Chinese art form, that of calligraphy, with the spirit of Western abstraction.
  His later paintings also feature a technique Fong started using in the 1990s. He would apply acrylic onto thin sheets of plastic, these sheets would be crumbled to create unpredictable patterns, and these patterns in turn are transferred onto the paper or canvas. The patterns often produce a rhythmic vitality in its purest abstract form. From a distance, the subtle hues of brown, blue, green and violet juxtaposes serenity with energy.
  In the grand context of Chinese modernist art, Fong Chung-ray undeniably has an essential role in shaping its direction. One can find in many younger Chinese artists, who dabble in combining traditional Chinese art forms with Western techniques, noticeable influence from Fong, whether they like to admit it or not. Having made his mark in the continuum of contemporary Chinese painting, Fong Chung-ray's spirit of experimentation continues to flourish. We look forward to his next body of creative work.
 
Manni Liu
Art Advisor
Chinese Culture Center of San Francisco
 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
     
聯絡我們